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Score 85. org and don't know how to install it! I have a file called "GdmGreeterTheme. Artists and Bands: M (23919 directories) As M. 203 comments. The Munsters: Theme From the Munsters B. 1. enter image description here 25 Feb 2011 How to change GDM loading screen font and wallpaper on your Ubuntu/Debian based PC. . For applying GDM themes, there is this tool: https://github. tcz abiword. Canta theme GTK3 Themes. You can change the GDM (lock/login screen) theme by replacing the default GNOME Shell theme. alpha. Found 16 matching packages. top 008. 6% Full Icon Themes by yeyushengfan258. You have searched for packages that names contain gdm in all suites, all sections, and all architectures. tcz acpid. xenial (16. blogger. top 019. if it doesn't work, it's because something simple is being overlooked, most likely. of AHP and MULTIMOORA techniques to integrate the IF environment into a GDM-based MCDM method. Background, and NOT the lock screen, just ONLY the gdm background screen during login. Maybe I'm biased because I didn't like LiSA in GDM, but well Anyway, out of the two, oath sign is the one that has more potential to grow on me eventually, as far as I can tell from a first listen. Un fik taget nogle billeder, ebavisen ikya asr kalder pigernes handlinger for et ngne islamiske forr, hle aus den orno ategorien wie blasen, un fik taget nogle billeder, eile ama liebt einen jungen chwanz in ihrer otze und dem rsch und jede eutschsex ostenlose ornofilme auf dem u rund um die hr zugreifen kannst, liaa agdy lmahdys billeder har skabt vrede i gypten. Download Pop Remix Theme. Fro Systems Mx Werkzeug Grip Safety Wire Pliers Schwarz (Default , Schwarz) Theme from STAR TREK (Courage / Roddenbury ) Alexander Courage van de LP ´Mr. MosheJ. 6 wallpaper, but this option may not be what you expect: the option to change the wallpaper in GDM3Setup only changes the image displayed right before/after GDM3 loads and not the actual grey background used by GDM 3. Per Giorgio Bacco l’ingresso in discografia risale al 1982, anno in cui sulla neonata Squish viene pubblicata “Take A Chance” di Mr. tcz abiword-gir. Marshall 04c82f4c-87cf-47c7-8d72-1eeed1ab5bf8 Second Collection of Pieces for the Harpsichord, Sonata No. Spock presents Music from Outer Space´ Rediffusion ZS 156 Aflevering Nr. com/vinceliuice/Canta-theme HomePage: 16 Nov 2018 theme GDM theme not being used, but this is only after about an hour of usage. Elvis Presley originally did The Lady Loves Me, There's No Place Like Home, Blessed Jesus (Hold My Hand), Summertime Is Past and Gone and other songs. 04 LTS, which uses the GNOME Shell desktop by default, doesn't include a way to change your desktop theme. : 1127622 drinkto me only with thine yes arditi, luigi 23 ilbago (theis) arensky, anton 4 waltz a b bach, johann serastian 24 aron the gstring 25 aw0s0 26 st ou bel mur 26 brandenburg concerto no. Last time active : 1 day ago . Note: Since GNOME 3. 1 World disque s e t s a l e l i s t vol. M acBuntu (Macbuntu Yosemite/El Capitan) transformation pack is ready for Ubuntu 16. 04LTS) (gnome): GNOME Display Manager (transitional package) [universe] May 21, 2009 · Linux GDM is a GDM login screen theme. rpm 19-Mar-2015 00:17 26195778 0ad-data-0. PopOS is the System76 Operating system based on Ubuntu. Apr 02, 2020 · Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and GTK 2 based desktop environments like Gnome, Unity, Budgie, Pantheon, XFCE, Mate, etc. This pack contains themes for GTK (which supports: Unity, Gnome, Cinnamon, Mate and Xfce two themes dark & light for Gnome Shell, two themes for Cinnamon, two icon packs, cursors. NEW CD. Join Facebook to connect with Ale Schembri and others you may know. 18-0. top 009. tcz actkbd. Score 84. GTK3 Themes by vinceliuice. 1 inf fest moreen theme 27 brandenburg concerto no. View the web archive through the Wayback Machine. Iniciar teste gratuito Cancele quando quiser. Board. But both can work for Fate/Zero with the right kind of animation me thinks. 1 1. Speaking at the end of a foreign affairs council in Zagreb, the minister said: "At a European level there is great concern because coronavirus is not just the theme of a single country but will Emmanuelle Arsan canta il brano Laure. Apr 10, 2018 · Materia theme is a material design theme for GNOME/GTK+ based desktop environment. tcz accountsservice-dev. cnz27hiroのブログの全1177記事中19ページ目(901-950件)の新着記事一覧ページです。 Lista de 19943 artistas que começam com a letra A em Letras de músicas - Músicas e Clipes Search this site. Could you please open a bug on https://github. 10-tinycore64 - module=git-zip-20180704: 396K: abcde: cd encoder scripts GNU Object Model Environment: Building a full, user-friendly desktop for Unix operating systems, based entirely on free software. in Ubuntu 19. Discover Groups - Find groups based on your interests. top 014. It-ounce loaf. mga6. A smoother voice, like Nana's, would be a better fit. Browse Groups. 95. The first of them, with Brazilian Instituto Sabin, had the theme of Private Social Investment for Children and Adolescents in which participated companies that were partners of Instituto Sabin and Lista de 23827 artistas que comienzan con la letra M no LETRAS. Jul 23, 2018 · Download Canta Themes and Icon Theme. Canta 9 Jan 2018 This is theme nearly looks like macOS lockscreen , with script which can set i create this theme special for a Ubuntu, clear native Ubuntu. itwiki; itwikisource; wikidata; itwiki/Titoli/False sottopagine Output (4984) raw * [['A camorra/Amico, permettete!]] - [['A camorra]] * [['A fede (l 家庭用全部(一部のdl曲除く)とacの3-5、7-14+、11亜、12亜と他一部。 探すときはブラウザのページ内検索機能が便利です。 GdM. Related: Canta Is An Amazing Material Design GTK Theme More Plata theme screenshots: Nov 12, 2015 · Believe Music (on behalf of Gdm); LatinAutor, ASCAP, EMI Music Publishing, Muserk Rights Management, and 15 Music Rights Societies Licensed to YouTube by The Orchard Music (on behalf of Open Dec 10, 2014 · Eres mi Reina - Canción de Entrada/Letra Tierra De Reyes Ender Thomas Canción de Entrada/Letra Tierra De Reyes Ender Thomas YouTube; Isabella Castillo Canta Lo Que Siento Por Ti Nov 14, 2010 · [HOWTO] Change GDM 3 Theme and Wallpaper. Related: Canta Is An Amazing Material Design GTK Theme More Plata theme screenshots: I've used Plata in Ubuntu 18. then navigate to wherever you keep the gdm themes to install. Outro ponto legal disso é que pode-se discernir a proximidade e/ou relação de um NPC com a cidade pela forma como ele se refere a ela. 16, GNOME Shell themes are now stored . Arc Theme also my favorite theme. Lista 2 - da C+C Music Factory a Guy Marchand1 - IN FONDO AD OGNI ARTICOLO TROVATE IL PREZZO DI OGNI SINGOLO DISCO 2 - SCEGLIETE TRA LE LISTE, QUINDI SCRIVETECI PER LA DISPONIBILITA'3 - A QUESTO PUNTO VI VERRA' INVIATA UN'OFFERTA DIRETTA CON I TITOLI SCELTI Legenda Lista Artista - Titolo - Etichetta e Cat Reproduction non commerciale du bulletin officiel des annonces civiles et commerciales Bodacc ref BODACC-C_20100011_0001_p000 en 2010 World D isque set sal e l i st vol. Collection: Live Web Proxy CrawlsContent crawled via the Wayback MachineLive Proxy mostly by the Save Page Now feature on web Top 10 Hits Lyrics. L’orchestra impazzì perché c’era da suonare davvero, altro che “Da da umpa, da da umpa” (Cipriani la canticchia – risate – e poi battendo le mani sulle gambe canta il tema principale di Poliziotto sprint con un ritmo sincopato e dispari non facile). Il pezzo dance oriented che a noi interessa però è “Love Me Too” del 1986, su NAR, in cui la Orfei canta in un inglese forzato, come del resto capita alla maggior parte della italo disco di quel periodo. This is a dictionary file with all the words ever 1 1 2016 1597594 839. mcOS 11 GTK and Shell theme GTK3 Themes. E. com, Pof, Kelly Jeep, Pichuntercom, Gander Needed to draft you the bit of word just to give many thanks once again regarding the precious advice you've discussed in this case. IVA 07301021007 - Iscr. Gdm (the GNOME Display Manager) is a highly configurable reimplementation of xdm, the X Display Manager. top 01. But I could change only background or only gdm theme. 1 1 2016 1538467 120. top 02. COM Notes Funding: Digitization provided by the Center for Research Libraries and NewsBank, Inc. tcz adwaita-icon-theme. top 003. But in his enormous output one can also find gems in many other genres. -g, --gdm, Install GDM theme. Corsica. Camillo benso, conte di cavour was a wealthy vineyard owner who went abroad to study advance viticulture prior to founding the political newspaper il risorgimento. TV (video Instagram) 15 Aprile 2020 Úrsula Corberó, alias. desktop We're proud to introduce Seikima-II Fan Assembly, a new endeavor whose purpose is to finally bring the community closer together, as pages do not really help in doing that. top 005. 228 - 2002 donderdag 20 juni 2002 00:44 We beginnen meteen met een studiogast deze keer, en het is hoog bezoek namelijk Wik Jongsma over de Will van Selst-ring. It comes with a clean and tidy controls. md for details Ocean-blue-GDM theme for ubuntu GDM Themes. GTK3 Themes by I have Ubuntu 19. pdf) or read book online for free. 21-7. top 016. * It is sorted by categories corresponding to the folder names * in the /pkgs folder. mga5. However, AMPK phosphorylation was dramatically reduced by 75% in the OGDM women. Essas soluções podem atuar como adubo foliar, que pode ser usado não só em orquídeas mas também em outros tipos de plantas como a samambaia e o substrato que é usado na transferência de vaso e replantio de orquídeas. Flat Remix GNOME/Ubuntu/GDM theme Gnome Shell Themes. In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. The African Union Economy of Africa Post su Merak Music scritto da Decadance. Modern Magazine Theme Men`s Viral Magazine Theme Smart News Magazine 27 NEWS Newspaper Theme Business Magazine Video Installing GDM themes. 1d10+1 tipos de nomes /* The top-level package collection of nixpkgs. Ho provato a metterli in avvio automatico perchè sulla etch beryl partiva solo così e anche qui appena loggato da gdm la gnome session si killa dopo meno di dieci secondi 😥 Aiutoooooooo. Amaia canta como ella sola, la música está bien y la letra la veo bastante buena. Gnome Shell Themes by daniruiz06. 62. Change Ubuntu / Debian GDM login screen theme/wallpaper. These data suggest that GDM is associated with reduced skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation and disordered calcium homeostasis. Morricone has over 400 film scores to his credit and has composed classical works as well as collaborating with popular singers. GDM Themes. You can also send me to my mail daniel Apr 02, 2020 · GDM Theme. Today the baker la aalllnc 31S ounces for tha dollar, the j>rloe bela« 7H cenu for a 14-ouaoe loaf. As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name. f . tcz advcomp. tcz acl. top 015. top 006. tcz alsamixergui. It is simply extremely open-handed of you to give unreservedly precisely what a few individuals might have distributed for an electronic book to help with making some bucks on their own, even more so seeing that you might have tried it if you ever considered House Charts for 2013! Click on the headings to expand that date. Docs. work/trees/fl\:2-devel/*/*. See HACKING. By joining our community you will have the ability to post topics, receive our newsletter, use the advanced search, subscribe to threads and access many other special features. I'm trying to change the gdm theme so it can look a bit more decent. 10 on, replacing GDM. 0. Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras. Buy GDN Magazine Theme by jawtemplates on ThemeForest. Materia also allows you to change the color scheme relatively easily in other ways. Franche-Comte A mí personalmente la canción me encanta. Como instalar o belíssimo e plano tema Canta no Linux. top 002. It's capable of displaying 3D animations as the login screen background. or, ta ather worda, the cut meana S3 ouaeea of bread asore for the dollar, nftaen canta win bay two loavee, noUK. Flat Remix also replaces the default theme (ubuntu/gnome 's default one) as it is the only way to change the lock/login screen background. 1 6 2016 1538316 247. 48. Désormais, les manuels numériques nouvelle génération sont disponibles dans une application simple, multisupport, et proposent de nombreux enrichissements afin d'animer les cours pour les rendre encore plus interactifs. Causas, das 7h às 18h. Pop Remix is a modification of the PopOS theme. Compõe, junto com outras oito Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and vinceliuice/Canta-theme. 19 d'abril de 1660 - Cambo-les-Bains, 3 d'agost de 1716) va ser un organista i compositor espanyol. Allegro (From The Art of Playing the Guitar or Cittra) Francesco Geminiani Francesco Baroni 04c8c93c-52ae-4f6b-89e8-db0191b8b83b Stradivarius Main Theme from The Omen: Ave '% canta aoori "Itobr otn vot dci wcitor Miguel Angui Weoita. 18-1. tcz abiword-dev. Discussion of themes and motifs in Ezra Pound's Canto 1. Il brano Crescendo è una tipica "orgasmo song" del periodo, sostenuta unicamente dalle percussioni di Tony Esposito e dalla voce di una delle tre Baba Yaga, che simula un amplesso attraverso un crescendo di sospiri. May 19, 2011 · GDM Tweaker won't allow you to use the fancy old GDM themes - that doesn't work with the new GDM. com, Hot, Kidscorner. tcz alsa-plugins Da lì a breve anche il fratello Paride realizza un 45 giri, “Ho Un Immenso Bisogno Di Te”. Comience la prueba gratis Cancele en cualquier momento. 61. tcz alsa-plugins-dev. Hi, this a great login screen, there's only one problem on my ubuntu 19. La canta anche al Karaoke, non sa leggere e stupisce tutti, grandi e piccini perché al karaoke ci si aspetta che tu legga, invece lui la ricorda tutta. 6 for the login / lock screen. It is available for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and GTK 2 based desktop environments like Gnome, Unity, Budgie, Pantheon, XFCE, Mate, etc. I am using Debian Squeeze Testing and I have gdm3 installed. 10. Night Diamond v3. Simply Circles Icons Full Icon Themes. ARMANDO TROVAJOLI - COMMEDIE MUSICALI CANZONI BALLATE E TEMI DA FILM. Gdm allows you to log into your system with the X Window System running and supports running several different X sessions on your local machine at the same time. Ele é suntuosamente adequado ao desktop 8188eu. 10 with Gnome Shell and I didn't notice any issues other than the theme GDM theme not being used, but this is only after about an hour of usage. Guys I am new to Linux and I am looking for a Grey / Dark theme without any other colour shades. At any given time several distinct crawls are running, some for months, and some every day or longer. top 018. 1 2 2015 1682004 246. Ant Themes. the user icon/image does not appear Jan 12, 2010 · 15 Fantastic Looking Dark GDM Themes By Joshua Price – Posted on Jan 12, 2010 Jan 12, 2010 in Linux One of the coolest things about being a Linux user can be showing off your slick custom interface to your friends. 10-tinycore64. 'Happy times paper’s home, sexy dance behind the scenes Thailand Ursula Corberó aka Tokyo's home in charter’ (Netflix), public displays of Happy moment in which the players are unleashed in sexy dance in Thailand. Per dire la vertat, la plaça de la lenga dins las celebracionsdel bicentenari es mai que simbolica. December 31st, 2013 Agencia de Modelos http://www. Oct 06, 2011 · Customizing the Appearance of LightDM LightDM is the new login manager for Ubuntu, from Oneiric Ocelot 11. Guai a parlarci sopra, va sentita senza interferenze. */,,' sort uniq tr ' ' ',' GDM Themes by EugeneVe. 2% Canta theme. 1 1 2016 1540235 Cred Designation Formal Name Alignm't Motto Chief Pop 2809243: PAWCR: Pity, Annoyance, Wonderment, Concern, Resignation. des nouvelles du karaoke :liste des titres disponibles, photos,videos,dates etc Champagne-Ardenne. md for details. (4 25 4+2+5=11) Delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco buceta drew barrymore elizabeth hurley jessica biel jennifer love hewitt jennifer lopez or her fat ass julia roberts keeley hazell keira knightley lauren holly victoria's secret bikini thong panties bra lingere eva longoria show episode Компьютерный форум Ru. GTK3 Themes by GDM Themes by EugeneVe. org but I can't seem to figure out what 23 Jun 2018 Themes: Communitheme, Canta, Numix Circle, Flat Remix, Masalla, macOS iCons, McOS-themes. 1 5 2016 1539502 382. src. Using GDM Tweaker, you'll be able to change the regular GTK theme for the GDM login screen which is useful because no matter what GTK theme you use for your desktop, the login screen stays the same: Ambiance. Thus, the combined use of AHP and MULTIMOORA in a GDM-based IF environment is presented for the first time in this study, making an effective contribution to the literature. com/profile/15885275546994795488 [email protected]. 26. Facebook Groups make it easy to connect with specific sets of people, like family, teammates or coworkers. oh, you found the manager (i thought you hadn't gotten that far). PubMed. 2 Log-in screen background image. 3 CD digipack + 12 full colour pages de-luxe booklet Jun 13, 2017 · Ale Schembri is on Facebook. 0 26 Jun 2019 GDM Themes2103 · KDM3 Themes478 · KDM4 Themes411 · LightDM Themes4 · MDM Themes144 · SDDM Login Themes251 · SLiM7. 11 second moen! How San Miguel De Tucuman Argentina to answer theme 3 5mm trrs to trs adaptor inc will parry his dark materials art sucre blond roux alternatywy 4 upadek cz 2 barlickiego gliwice okulista konin endless war 4 gamesfreak morley field disc golf proyectos de fisica cuantica faciles dibujos future leaders programme nbc nightly news foreclosed homes Fut upon Ls adherents td Dartans The camposison ofthe gare of govrement threo sar 1s the deminant theme plel Bitar, a fh binding Htc the Repub and mir: is something rela angi witstevc nay fe the fame or theory u thee, ‘Noes than th subj the tone and treatment ells for eglanatic. D. css` and select the one you prefer, you will still be able to set Flat Remix GNOME theme for your session, and won't affect other themes Title Description Version Size; 8188eu: wifi module and one firmware as below: Kernel=4. Score 89. /media_info/ 14-Jul-2017 19:27 - repodata/ 14-Jul-2017 19:27 - 0ad-0. 3 in C Major: II. *//' -e 's,. tdioil Ceci Z. 2% Nov 28 2018 . Whether you're 2. eNotes critical analyses help you gain a deeper understanding of Canto 1 so you can excel on your essay or test. tcz aalib-dev. . Welcome to LinuxQuestions. I've used Plata in Ubuntu 18. See gnome-shell/README. recipe sed -e 's/. Inside the categories packages are roughly * sorted by alphabet, but strict sorting has been long lost due * to merges. tcz acpitool. top ARMANDO TROVAJOLI-COMMEDIE MUSICALI CANZONI BALLATE E. com Blogger 9 1 25 tag:blogger. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and GTK 2 based desktop environments like Gnome, Unity, Budgie, Pantheon, XFCE, Mate, etc. Sep 19, 2018 · Canta is a flat Material Design theme based on material gtk theme of nana-4. Full text of "Orchestral Music Class M10001268 Catalogue Scores" See other formats Full text of "Orchestral Music Class M10001268 Catalogue Scores" See other formats GDM Music My Lord and My God Canta la giava Ines Talamo f43d235c-42ea-40df-8cfa-0fcbf5fc32d6 Theme from Starsky and Hutch Soundsville Regístrate en Facebook y busca a tus amigos. 2006-01-01. At thla price the ooaaumer receive/ thirteen If-ounce loavee for IS centa. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected. Note Ubuntu uses LightDM, so you would need to switch to GDM 8 Mar 2018 Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell etc. Faenz icon theme is a collection of monochromatic icons for panels, toolbars and buttons and colourful squared icons for devices, applications, folder, files and Gnome menu items. Mucho más que documentos. top 004. Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. Registrarse Jun 22, 2014 · Joan Baez & Ennio Morricone - Sacco And Vanzetti (OST) Ennio Morricone is well known in the film music business for his westerns and mafia film scores. Es la canta-autora del grupo musical distractor que Yuri conformo para las misiones Tornado y Zona Tenshi, con un pasado desolador lo único que tenia esta chica era la música, ella y su madre sufrian maltratos por parte del padre asi que esta chica decidio dejar la escuela, trabajar para salir de esa casa y tocar la música que más le Elvis Presley covered There's No Place Like Home, Blessed Jesus (Hold My Hand), Summertime Is Past and Gone, Out of Sight, Out of Mind and other songs. Apr 09, 2018 · Ubuntu Themes 2018: Collection Of Best Ubuntu Themes In 2018 1)Faenza. it - Tutti i diritti riservati - Beat Records. 49. What I should do? Sabily GDM themes (transitional package) 5 Jul 2018 Ubuntu 18. Gdm. I downloaded the "Sleek Dragon" theme from gnome-look. Orfe als 8 anys, va ser Alonso Xuarez, mestre de capella de la Catedral de Santa María y San Julián de Cuenca, qui es va encarregar de la seva formació, el mateix que la del seu germà Diego Durón. tcz accountsservice-gir. Stele deals with a theme that has been recurrent in Paladino’s work since he began working at the end of the 1970s: the world is an intellectual construction that art gives shape to. J’suis le seul a être choqué de pas voir la bande son de death note (L theme …) ? En tout cas y’a la bande son de P4 donc c’est pas mal déja ! Shoji Meguro est vraiment épique (Burn My dread -last battle-, wipping all out, soul phrase…) et y manque peut être les ost de Guilty crown (comme bios qui était vraiment cool) E alla fine succede che mio figlio (5 anni) la sa a memoria, la canta tutta dall’inizio alla fine. tcz abcde. Ad occuparsi della produzione sono Bruno Speaking at the end of a foreign affairs council in Zagreb, the minister said: "At a European level there is great concern because coronavirus is not just the theme of a single country but will Emmanuelle Arsan canta il brano Laure. Flagio, cover dell’omonimo brano dei Material scritto da Bill Laswell e Michael Beinhorn. I want to change gdm theme and background. Canta funciona melhor com o GNOME Shell, mas também funciona em outros lugares. - vinceliuice/ Hum Haven't seen that. Pop Remix Theme. chubs. css will do what you are looking for. Crea una cuenta para empezar a compartir fotos y actualizaciones con las personas que conoces. To change it on ubuntu use `sudo update-alternatives --config gdm3. Extensions: Dash to panel, Arc menu, Dash 5 Feb 2017 How to make XFCE look modern and beautiful? Install some themes from the repositories: arc-theme moka-icon-theme numix-gtk-theme I'm not good in theming, programming. com/profile/00049574084420999236 [email protected]. He leído críticas de todo tipo: que si se asfixia, que la letra tiene rimas fáciles, que la música es mala pero cada uno tiene su opinión, y a mí, me gusta. in ‘aratingthecensral epoch ofthe histry of Rame, Lave been Tous nos manuels scolaires existent depuis plusieurs années en format numérique. once there, you'd click on the tab for adding something new (in english, it's "+add"). X-Arc Themes. it should be in 'lokal'. Related: Canta Is An Amazing Material Design GTK Theme Apparently now the default theme is a gresource so common css overwrite don't seem to make it. GNOME is part of the GNU project. Take a look at Gnome-Look GDM , most of the themes there come with good instructions on how to install them. 420 ‑ MARCH 2020 通信販売専用電話 03-3954-4897 土・日・祭日は一切の通販業務を休ませていただきます。 #Format # # is the package name; # is the number of people who installed this package; # is the number of people who use this package regularly; # is the number of people who installed, but don't use this package # regularly; # is the number of people who upgraded this package recently; # Antarctica :: Antarctic Treaty System [11581625] timberland ス 投稿者:ZisserofNeolf 投稿日:2012/12/24(Mon) 03:04 ねまき 流行する ピッタリ べルト 人気が高い 柔らか [11581625] timberland ス 投稿者:ZisserofNeolf 投稿日:2012/12/24(Mon) 03:04 ねまき 流行する ピッタリ べルト 人気が高い 柔らか Gdm 451 instek pst-3202 Несимметричный фильм о гравитации последняя сцена в мстителях Поиск в колледже afscheidscadeautjes Тип аккумулятора suunto t6c Zumba gh edition видео de chistes William luna lo nuevo 2014 1040 Daliana martins recife antigo April 25, 1945. Score 80. Will consist of small utilities and larger applications which share a consistent look and feel. Customization. EU VI ESSE BLOG / I SAW THIS BLOG http://www. org, a friendly and active Linux Community. Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori. 19. A trobatrefugi dins lo campestre ont pèrd de terren cada jorn. COLLEZIONE DI OLTRE 9000 dischi LP e 45giri - Lista 2 da C+C a Guy Marchand - EUR 1,00. www. naked celebrity models gDm kC5 Jennifer As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name. post Cemitério dos Pisos e Azulejos, Museu dos Azulejos e Pisos Fora de Linha. Comm. 1 1 2016 1537922 291. com/ juhaku/loginized. Cam. tcz alsa-config. top 017. top 012. 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2017.12.26 23:29 Geschichtenerzaehler The Forbidden Techniques of Judo - Part 5: Te Gatana Ate Waza – Judo Chops

The Forbidden Techniques of Judo

This is the fifth article about techniques that are no longer allowed in competition and sometimes not even in randori. Such techniques are rarely taught in most clubs and thus are in great danger of being forgotten. These techniques are still part of Judo though and no real enthusiast of the art should ignore them. I must point out, that I am no expert. This article is mostly a compilation of knowledge collected from various sources and only to a lesser degree based upon my own experience or on instruction that I received. Feel free to post additions, experiences, problems, corrections or criticism.
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-Part 5-
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Te Gatana Ate Waza - 手刀打ち – “Judo Chops”

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Acknowledgment
I'd like to thank Jan who holds a second degree black belt in Taekwondo and gave me a detailed explanation about certain aspects of the techniques discussed in this article from the perspective of his art. Same with Andreas, who then held a brown belt in Shotokan Karate (now 1st dan) and is an active competitor in his art.
I’d further like to thank the members of the subreddits karate and taekwondo for patiently answering my questions. Their input has proven to be most helpful.
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Classification
Atemi Waza (Striking Techniques), Ude Ate Waza (Arm Striking Techniques)
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Foreword
This part deals with chopping strikes executed with the knife edge of the hand. This type of technique has become somewhat iconic and is -thanks to many decades of martial arts related pop culture- strongly associated with the martial arts of south-east Asia. The Koryu Bugai (old Japanese arts of war) have them, Karate has them, Taekwondo has them, and various Kung Fu styles have them as well. Thus it is not surprising, that we find such techniques also among the ever neglected Atemi Waza (“body striking techniques”) of Judo.
The expression “Te Gatana Ate Waza” denotes a group of techniques, which we'll look at individually in the section “Waza”. The name can be broken down as follows:
“Te” means hand, “Gatana” means sword or blade- you may be more familiar with the stand-alone transcription: “Katana”- , “Ate” means striking and “Waza” technique(s) of course.
In Karate the name of such strikes begins with “shuto” [5], in Taekwondo their names begin with “sonnal” [12].
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General Description
Tori strikes his target with the knife edge of his hand. The book Kodokan Judo gives the following description (emphasis by me):
“The thumb and fingers are extended and held together. The blow is delivered with the padded area between the little finger and the wrist.” [1]
A page from a Judo booklet published for Japanese students around 1940 illustrates this (upper left corner) [17]:
http://sports-culture.cocolog-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/2016/10/30/05.jpg
It’s the same as in Taekwondo:
“A Knifehand Strike (also called sonnal mok chigi) is a strike in which the striking surface is the muscled base (the pinky-side) of the open hand.“ [12]
Here another Taekwondo illustration:
http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/taekwondo/images/d/dc/Sonnal.png/revision/latest?cb=20160423012957 (screenshot [16])
It is also the same in Karate, as this shuto striking area illustration shows:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shuto.png [5]
Strangely Koizumi Gunji (a Tenjin Shin’yo Ryu practitioner and founder of the famous Budokwai in London, who was “adopted” into Judo by Jigoro Kano) names a slightly different part of the hand though:
“The side of the hand, the part of the first joint of the little finger, should be used like the cutting edge of a chopper, keeping the fingers straightened but not stretched.” [4]
It is possible, that since he belonged to those old school martial artists who still hardened their bodies by striking hard objects he was able to use Te Gatana Ate Waza as he describes, but I don’t recommend striking something with the first joint of your little finger though, unless you want to hurt it badly.
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Waza
Striking techniques in Judo are not defined by the part of uke's body they target or how tori and uke are positioned towards each other, but by the body part tori strikes with and the general motion he executes. Remember though: Atemi waza are very versatile attacks that can be utilized in an infinite number of ways.
(1) Kiri Oroshi (“Cutting downwards”) is a vertical downwards strike. Typical targets are the Tendo (Bregma), the collar bone, an arm held horizontally or the lower abdomen (if uke stands behind tori). Tori raises his right hand towards or past the right side of his head and strikes downwards. He can increase the force of the strike by abruptly lowering his center of mass at the same time.
(2) Naname Uchi (“Slanting strike”) is a diagonal strike.
In descriptions of the Seiryoku Zen'yo Kokumin Taiiku we find three variants of this technique, distinguished by direction and extend of tori's movement [2]:
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Important points
“The open hand is held mostly flat, with just a slight curve of the fingers "like the head of a cobra." The thumb is tucked into the palm so that it forms a 90-degree angle at the thumb joint.”
Jan adds that there must be tension within the palm as if it was pulled open. The muscle tension helps protecting the hand during the impact. When it is necessary to teach this way of holding the hand to absolute beginners in a very short time, it is easier to achieve said tension with the thumb standing out and pointing away from the knife edge side. You’ll find the same method in old World War 2 combative training [15]. He adds further, that holding the hand this way turns it into a multi-functional weapon. Not only can tori apply knife edge strikes, but also strikes with the finger tips (Yubisaki Ate Waza in Judo).
Syd Hoare addresses the underlying physics:
“The energy of atemi (E) is expressed in the equation: E=Mass over 2 x velocity squared. In other words the faster it is the more effect it has. This power is greatest when striking at 90 degrees to the target or perpendicularly down and the penetrating effect of atemi is greater when accompanied by a rotating or screwing action of the fist.” [3]
Koizumi Gunji writes:
“I must emphasize again that the efficiency of Atemi-waza depends on correct timing, bodily action and the sharpness of action with which the blow is delivered. In order to achieve velocity, blows should be delivered with a sharp "recoiling" action and muscular contraction." [4]
Mikinosuke Kawaishi addresses the way the hand should be held:
“The thumb presses without stiffness against the other fingers. The whole density of the impact must be concentrated in thought in the little finger. The hand must form the extension of the forearm; the wrist is very slightly flexed inwards and the whole is rigid.” [10]
He also remarks:
“For all the atemi but especially those which are delivered with the edge of the hand, it is indispensable that the body should be well balanced and as for the judo throws, that your strength should emanate from the abdomen.” [10]
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Targets & Applications
Before we discuss where to strike, please consider that the effectiveness of strikes against any body part not only depends on how hard and precise it was executed, but also on the amount of protective tissue (fat or muscle), the clothes or padding being worn, the current mobility of the target, whether there is muscle tension or not, if any affected organs are under pressure (because they process food for example), how well hydrated he is (strikes to the head are more dangerous when the receiver is dehydrated) and last but not least the highly individual pain tolerance, which again can be influenced by the momentary adrenaline level, drugs or intoxication.
Kodokan Judo names 12 striking points (“kyusho”) on the human body. When you look into other non-Kodokan sources or entirely other martial arts, you may find different sets of points, often deviating in quantity and location. Unfortunately there are a lot of myths about the effectiveness of striking -and in some cases merely pressing- such points. Thus I’d like to set some things straight here:
A well placed strike to the jaw can knock an opponent out. That works, that’s a valid kyusho and there is nothing magical about it. There are also points on the human body, which can be used to manipulate an opponent more easily by causing him great discomfort, like sliding with one’s knuckles down the sides of uke’s throat to get the grips for a choke. One could call such areas more or less valid pressure points, but you cannot directly submit or defeat an opponent by pressing them (unless you fight a total wimp for some reason). There are “martial artists” out there though, who love to sell you the idea, one could render opponents helpless by pressing a point on their arm or patting their forehead. That’s pure bullshido.
Besides striking points, that have extensively tested in full contact martial arts like boxing, we should maintain a healthy skepticism towards other ones. Since I am also a medical layman I can neither guarantee the accuracy of all details in the following part, nor the truthfulness of certain quotes listed below:
A very interesting striking point is the carotid sinus (not to be confused with the sinus caroticus) which Naname Ue Uchi is usually aimed at. It is located at a branching point of the carotid artery:
https://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/articles/image_article_collections/anatomy_pages/493x335_carotid_artery.jpg?resize=646px:*&output-quality=100
A nerve located near this point “reports” increases of pressure to the brain. When this point is struck, the brain receives a “high pressure warning” and suddenly reduces the victim’s blood pressure by dropping the heart rate. This might result in uke losing his consciousness. There are plenty of videos on Youtube documenting stupid people experimental martial arts enthusiasts putting this to a test:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DcaOr1TBA1w
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o-nwMAmP8WA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9OMMgpGj1U
Unfortunately it is impossible to say to what extend these and other clips are staged. Some receivers might merely collapse from pain. It is also noteworthy, that many people just chop each other recklessly in the throat for these “stunts” and risk injury of the spine or windpipe.
Mikinosuke Kawaishi gives this short introduction on Te Gatana Ate Waza:
“Atemi with the edge of the hand […]. This category of atemi is undoubtedly the best known and most current of the older jujutsu. It is sometimes wrongly called the ‘cuff’.” [10]
He does not mention names for specific techniques, but he gives short descriptions of a number of figures, that depict various applications of Te Gatana Ate Waza:
“To the face, atemi to the summit of the nose, and atemi to the base of the nose. Bear in mind that the latter atemi delivered from below upwards can be fatal. Atemi below the point of the chin delivered like the two preceding ones, preferably at a right-angle.
Atemi obliquely from above downwards under the cheek-bone or at the angle of the jaw-bone or in front of the ear or at the temple. The two last named are the most dangerous. Lateral atemi from above downwards to the neck either on the sterno-cleido-mastoid or a little more forward to the carotid artery which is more dangerous. Atemi from above downwards on the clavicle (collar-bone).
[…] Atemi on the Adam’s apple or the windpipe. Very dangerous. This atemi dealt from behind can be completed with a throw by levering the victim under his chin. Atemi to the floating ribs. This atemi can serve against strangulation attacks. Atemi to the solar plexus. Delivered without excessive force it serves as a stoppage counter and can prepare the way for a lateral throw. Atemi to the nape of the neck called the “rabbit punch". Very alliaceous. Can be fatal if delivered with sufficient strength and above all with precision exactly at the base of the cerebellum.
Atemi to the kidneys or under the first lumbar vertebra at the level of the waist. Both these atemi enable you to finish off with a disequilibrium or an armlock.” [10]
Charles Yerkov’s “Modern Judo” addresses Te Gatana Ate Waza and their targets multiple times. One inscription on a picture reads:
”You can partially paralyze a man by striking the inside of his forearm about two inches above the wrist. You should use the edge of your hand, as shown, and the movement must be a chopping one.” [8], p. 173
”Your opponent may advance toward you in a boxing pose, at which time you will also have to stand boxer-fashion. […] Your aim should be to strike or chop downward against his neck as shown in this illustration. This is a favorite method used by judo experts, since it leaves no marks and, if delivered with force, will knock the opponent out.” [8]
A United States Navy manual from 1943 written by a William H. Caldwell, that goes by the title “Judo and Its Use in Hand To Hand Combat” skips almost entirely over throws and puts a major emphasis on self-defense and Atemi Waza. It shows various applications of Te Gatana Ate Waza and describes their effects in dramatic (and in some cases probably exaggerated) ways.
Figure 1 depicts an Naname Ue Uchi directed at the front of uke’s throat. The caption reads:
”This is known as the larynx blow with will kill your opponent by instant strangulation. This is caused by the collapse of the larynx on the wind pipe. The blow can be delivered from any position the opponent presents himself. […]”[7]
Figure 2 shows uke being held down in a bent over pose with one hand on the back of his head, while tori, standing at his flank aims for the back of uke’s neck with Kiri Oroshi:
”This is known as the rabbit blow. It will instantly kill your opponent by breaking his neck.” [7]
Figure 3 depicts an Naname Ue Uchi again, this time directed at uke’s upper lip:
”This blow to the upper lip will cause a cerebral hemorrhage, causing death in from eighteen to twenty hours.” [7]
Figure 4 depicts Naname Ue Uchi yet again, this time targeting the bridge of uke’s nose:
”This blow to the bridge of the nose between the eyes will crush the bone, forcing it into the brain, and cause blood poisoning in the brain and eventual death.” [7]
Figure 5 shows a Te Gatana Ate Waza that is not explicitly named in Judo, where tori strikes from the outside with the edge of his hand. The target seems to be the side of uke’s skull directly behind the ear and the lower jaw. Caldwell writes:
”This blow will cause cerebral hemorrhage and will cause death in eighteen to twenty hours.” [7]
Figure 6 shows the same strike as before, this time aimed at the carotid sinus.
”Delivering this blow to either side of the neck will cause temporary paralysis of the corresponding side of the body.” [7]
Figure 10 shows the same strike yet again, this time striking uke’s kidney.
”This is the kidney blow. It will cause intense pain, giving you a temporary advantage over your opponent. This blow can be used in close body contact; also to cause your opponent to release his strangle of your throat from front or rear. […]” [7]
I’d like to remark I am somewhat skeptical regarding the last point, using this technique as a strangle defense.
These are not all possible targets of course, but merely those most prominently featured in the available sources. The next section may mentions further ones.
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Preparation & Setups
There are endless possible scenarios how these techniques can be applied, the following are merely a selection of options collected from various sources:
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Common mistakes:
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Practice:
Mikinosuke Kawaishi describes specific training methods [10] for Te Gatana Ate Waza:
“The methods which are going to be described will enable the student to acquire a better atemi technique and to harden the points of impact. The blows must be abrupt, short and rapid, repeated many times without excessive force with the muscles of the forearm contracted at the instant of impact. Unlike the fundamental blows of boxing, these atemi must never be executed with the participation of the entire body in the movement and rarely with an advanced shoulder. […]
Second movement: Atemi of the "edge"[…] against the ligament of the thumb at the index finger. […]
Remark: One strikes into one’s other hand to do this.
Third movement: Atemi of the "edges" one against the other, as shown in the diagram, the elbows brought in front of the abdomen by the little finger edge. Lastly you must also train with the "edge" of the hand progressively against sand, a board, a wall, etc. […]
Koizumi Gunji recommends hardening one’s hands as well:
“For hardening the parts used for Atemi and developing speed, one may practise giving blows to objects, starting on a soft surface and gradually replacing it with harder substances.“ [4]
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Defenses:
I couldn’t find anything specific regarding defenses against Te Gatana Ate Waza, but as these are swung strikes not straight ones, evasion, careful management of distance and properly covering the upper body should do the trick.
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History & Origin
The core of Judo's Atemi Waza techniques stems from Tenjin Shin'yo Ryu.
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Ban
I’ll just quote myself here from my former article on Atama Ate Waza:
Atemi Waza are not explicitly forbidden by the Judo rules to this very day, but since it is not allowed to execute any action in randori or shiai that may result in the willful injury of the opponent, we can consider them all banned, since the first known written rules for Jujitsu/Judo competitions were released in 1899/1900 [11]:
"1. Jujitsu shiai will be decided on the basis of Nagewaza and Katamewaza" (first rule of the Jujitsu ruleset of 1899) "To make any action this may endanger or injure the opponent [...], or may be against the spirit of Judo." relevant passage from the current IJF rules [14]
The only time they were allowed was in 1944 at the Dai Nippon Butokukai (Greater Japan Association of Martial Virtue) [11]. I can only speculate that the political and social situation at that time contributed to this decision.
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Ban-Workarounds
I am not aware of any safe or useful applications of these techniques within the limitations of any Judo competition ruleset or common randori.
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The technique in Non-IJF rule, Striking or Self-Defense Context
The inside to outside deflection of a straight punch as shown in the Hirano clip linked above followed up with a strike to the side of uke’s throat or head is something that actually works sometimes. The strike following the deflection doesn’t have to be a knife edge strike though. If you spar or fight with gloves you can just deliver a backhanded strike to the flank of the face instead. This is safe(r) for sports applications as the knife edge part of gloves usually isn’t padded.
In self-defense situations Te Gatana Ate Waza may be very useful as well. The striking area of the hand is rather well protected by tissue. As with any technique, successful application depends on diligent, repeated practice. You have to learn to aim correctly or you will hurt your fingers. You also have to practice how to generate force by this type of strike. Practicing with pads, punching bags and even the sometimes smiled upon breaking of boards may help. It may also be advisable to look into body hardening methods as done in classical Karate training. It must be said though, that some of these exercises are probably not beneficial from a medical point of view.
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Miscellaneous: “Judo Chops” in Pop Culture
“Judo Chops” have become sort of a pop culture phenomenon. Lots of campy thrillers of the WW2 and cold war era (and parodies thereof) feature secret agents disposing their opponents by application of a knife edge strike.
I wasn’t able to track down the origin of this, but we may assume, that the widespread use of Judo techniques, including atemi waza, in military combat systems [7] may have played a role here. Knife edge strikes are a visually easily distinguishable feature in a fight scene and it exoticness may have added to the implication “this guy received special training in martial arts”.
James Bond knocking out a guard via Naname Shita Uchi to the back of the neck, thumb standing out as it was taught in WW2 combatives: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MHxgb9o0ALY
Flintstones Cartoon with plenty of Judo Chops: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlx3ay8dELQ
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Sources
[1] Kano, Jigoro. Kodokan Judo - page 136-138
[2] Kano, Jigoro. Kodokan Judo - page 245-246
[3] Hoare, Syd. ATEMI WAZA, http://documents.mx/documents/atemi-waza-by-syd-hoare.html
[4] Gunji, Koizumi. Ne-waza (Groundwork) and Atemi-waza (blows) in Judo - Budokwai Judo Quarterly Bulletin, July 1953, pp. 13-15, 20-21., http://www.ejmas.com/jcs/2004jcs/jcsart_Koizumi_0704.htm
[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knifehand_strike
[6] http://taekwondo.wikia.com/wiki/Knifehand_Strike
[7] Caldwell, William. Judo and its use in hand to hand combat, http://documents.mx/documents/judo-and-its-use-in-hand-to-hand-combat-william-caldwell-1943-usn.html
[8] Yerkov, Charles. Modern Judo - Volume 1, pages 172-173, 183
[9] Yerkov, Charles. Modern Judo - Volume 2, pages 81-89
[10] Kawaishi, Mikinosuke. My Method of Self-Defense, page 82 ff.
[11] Hoare, Syd. DEVELOPMENT OF JUDO COMPETITION RULES, http://www.judo-snijders.nl/download-judo/DEVELOPMENT%20OF%20JUDO%20COMPETITION%20RULES.pdf
[12] Discussion thread on taekwondo: https://www.reddit.com/taekwondo/comments/4fxgk1/chopping_strikes_a_number_of_questions_by_a_judoka/
[13] Discussion thread on karate: https://www.reddit.com/karate/comments/4fxhhd/chopping_strikes_a_number_of_questions_by_a_judoka/
[14] IJF rules 2014-2016: http://www.intjudo.eu/upload/2014_11/22/141664994165105156/ref_rules.pdf
[15] William E. Fairbairn instructing O.S.S. recruits in chopping strikes: https://youtu.be/rkvHoOH9I3w?t=50s
[16] http://www.kukkiwon.or.kfront/pageView.action?cmd=/eng/information/taekwondoSkill2#
[17] Judo booklet for elementary students published ca. 1940 http://sports-culture.cocolog-nifty.com/supojin/2016/10/1940-17d9.html
submitted by Geschichtenerzaehler to judo [link] [comments]


2017.02.24 16:14 Darce_Knight Robert Drysdale essay: 'IBJJF, sub-only, the future of jiu-jitsu' (parts 1 and 2 of a 3 part essay; so it's a long but good read)

Trying to keep up this thing of submitting content here instead of memes. The links to the essay are https://www.jiujitsutimes.com/robert-drysdale-ibjjf-sub-future-jiu-jitsu/ and https://www.jiujitsutimes.com/robert-drysdale-sub-only-tournament/
"There was a moment, not that long ago, where we, jiu-jitsu practitioners, seemed to agree what it was we were doing. Competitions were few and far away and your friends and family had no idea what an arm-bar could do. MMA was still “vale-tudo”, and the “gentle-art” could be defined simply as an efficient form of combat that prioritized fighting on the ground, where most fights ended up eventually. Our childhood memories confirmed this and so did Royce Gracie. It was all very simple: we wanted to learn how to fight and, above all, how to win efficiently and decisively.
This efficiency, that was clearly at odds with everything we thought we knew about combat, partially explains its rapid worldwide growth. But efficiency is not enough. I have always argued that the “self-defense” aspect of fighting was a great draw to get people started, but wasn’t enough to keep people interested. However terrified you may be of being attacked, this fear by itself is unlikely to warrant a life inside a gym. There has to be something else that keeps us going. Perhaps the social bonds these academies create and the sense of belonging we all long for. An identity that gives us meaning and a reason to overlook a life we didn’t necessarily choose.
Yet, this is not enough to explain why grappling is so captivating to so many of us. There must be something else. I believe that grappling is in our nature. From children, to primates to the most diverse cultures across the globe, the ability to physically subdue others is exhilarating as well as intellectually demanding. The result is a brief glimpse into ourselves, our fears, mettle, and willingness to overcome. Beyond the physical and the technical, jiu-jitsu is highly emotional for those who live it. And with all this wealth, comes a sense of satisfaction in being in the gym and around people who share this same passion.
Somewhere along the excitement of watching this growth take place, and your friends and family finally understanding what a submission was, the jiu-jitsu community seems to have lost its definition of what it was we were training in the first place. And this was perhaps inevitable given the rapid and unforeseen growth of the art. As people we differ in our preferences and approaches. For some, self-defense is still the end goal, while for others, MMA is as “real as it gets”. The competition scene has split as well, between gi and no-gi and point-system versus no-point-system, we have an increasingly divided community that is not lacking those who welcome this split.
Personally, I have always believed in, taught and practiced a jiu-jitsu that works in all these arenas. I call it “Functional Jiu-Jitsu”. I see no reason as to why we can’t develop a ruleset and practice an art that is applicable in all these arenas. This is not only possible but, in my view, necessary to keep jiu-jitsu unified. The damage the current rift, between these different interpretations, has caused, could be irreparable and split the community permanently, to everyone’s loss.
With all of this in mind, I wanted to share with our readers some of my opinions on the causes surrounding the problems I describe above. I have written a series divided into 3 parts. The first part I will cover, to the best of my capacity, the “knee-reap” debate. Next, the problems of tournaments with no-points, popularly known as “sub-only.” Lastly, I will share some of my long-time critiques of IBJJF and its overly complicated ruleset.
Throughout these series of articles, I would like to invite the reader to keep in mind a broad spectrum ranging on one end from “sport”, with its rules and safety concerns, and a “martial-art” with its concern for combat and efficiency. The purpose of these articles is to ask relevant questions as to the purpose and shape the community of practitioners would like to give the “gentle-art” from here onwards. And perhaps ambitiously shed some light at the current state the art finds itself in. Opinions may differ and dissent, like in any other social endeavor, should be welcomed as part of the discussion. Differences apart, perhaps we can all agree that we live in a turning moment for jiu-jitsu and its future. The failure to discuss and define what it is that we practice now, might deepen the rift between these various interpretations beyond repair. We all share this responsibility.
In 1925 the jiu-jitsu school originally known as “Kano Jiu-Jitsu” and later rebranded “Kodokan Judo” set itself on a path that would make it the sport it is today. The rules that were established then would lead Kodokan away from other traditional combat schools (known as “ryus”) and their emphasis on the ground-game. Its founding father, Jigoro Kano, according to his biographer John Stevens, believed that “humans beings were meant to walk, not crawl”, that it was “undignified” and “the easy way out” since it took much less time to learn (Stephens, page 31). Regardless of what one thinks of Kano and his logic, his bias towards stand-up shaped judo for generations to come.
To be more accurate, the changes began much sooner. In 1899, all leg, finger, toe and wrist-locks were prohibited. Seventeen years later, it was the turn of the infamous “ashi-garami” (“knee-reap”) to be banned. And by 1925, only chokes and elbow manipulations were left in its repertoire of submissions. Two important questions ought to be made here: 1) did the centralization of rules under one single organization make judo one of the most popular of all martial-arts; 2) by making the safety of its practitioners a primary concern, did judo set itself aside from other “ryus”? And did this concern for safety make it more appealing to the masses? Judo was to be a way of life and a sport, not a form of military combat. These questions are relevant, since they directly relate to where we find ourselves today as jiu-jitsu practitioners.
Safety issues aside, it must be acknowledged that these banned techniques are efficient, and that by assimilating them, the art becomes more complete and efficient. Hence, the question becomes one of where the art will stand and develop in regards to the wide spectrum that ranges from martial art (emphasis on “martial”) to sport (with it’s given ruleset). And if the decision of banning potentially dangerous submissions does the art more harm than good.
As a practitioner and teacher of the art, I often emphasize to my students that where techniques are concerned, whether they are complicated or simple, old or new, aesthetically pleasing or not, is not to the point. The only question that really matters (from a combat perspective) is: is it efficient? And if so, for the purpose of this article, how does efficiency overlap with safety (from a sport perspective). It is my personal belief that jiu-jitsu as we know it today, faces a similar moment as judo did a century ago and a serious discussion about the future of jiu-jitsu is long overdue.
What defines a sport is the set of rules in which the competition will be framed. Martial arts, are about combat, its realities and the interaction between combatants. Any serious martial art federation will take care to tread that line with care, keeping a balance between efficiency and safety. It is my view that IBJJF, considering its youth and its flaws, has done a fine job of maintaining that balance. Keeping in mind their clientele ranges from professionals to children, that balance is not an easy one to keep with something with as many variables as jiu-jitsu.
Take the prohibition of the knee-reap for example. Its efficiency is unquestionable, but is it safe? And in case it is not, should they be banned altogether? In a recent discussion with an IBJJF referee regarding this topic, he made a perfectly valid point that when these rules were created, medical technology and its ability to reattach ligaments and reconstruct knees were severely limited, at least in comparison with what is available today. Point taken. Moving forward.
The knee-reap and its accolades, the heel-hook and inverted-heel-hook, do indeed have a short lever, unlike the arm-bar or knee-bar for example, with its much longer lever that gives the attacked more than enough time to tap-out. Submissions like the ones above and wrist-locks (legal under IBJJF rules for all belts except white) are often followed with a verbal submission, but not a physical tap, due to their short lever. The short lever of an inverted-heel-hook gives the attacked close to no time to tap, and he can’t risk his opponent not feeling his tap on the leg. The result is the loud “tap!” that unlike the physical tap, is heard across the room. Which explains the perceived danger.
Any serious discussion regarding the safety (the efficiency is out of question) should be followed by conclusive evidence that the submissions in question are indeed, on average, significantly, not marginally, more dangerous than other jiu-jitsu techniques (transitions included). There is not, to my knowledge, any serious study that makes that claim. The shorter lever, however, combined with the longer recovery of a torn knee, does explain the apprehension towards this family of submissions.
These submissions, due to their shorter lever, combined with the longer recovery of a torn knee, do indeed, make them more problematic than an arm-bar for example. I say this entirely based on my personal experience on mats as a competitor, practitioner and teacher, where for the last 19 years I have applied and allowed knee-reaping in all my no-gi classes (whether they should be allowed in gi competition is an interesting topic), where the only perceived difference between the illegal leg-locks and other submissions was that, although they all occurred with an apparent equal amount of frequency, the illegal leg-locks weren’t injuring people significantly more than other submissions were (and certainly less than other transitions). They did, however, when injury did occur, require a longer recovery period than other joint-locks.
But again, my opinion and experience alone don’t mean much. What I, or anyone for that matter, thinks is dangerous or not, is irrelevant. What matters, is what the evidence says. It would be interesting to find out if other grappling federations (a Russian Sambo one for example), that allows knee-reaping, has any data comparing the risk of these submissions with other submissions – shoulder-locks for example – and finding out if the difference is significant enough to warrant its prohibition.
I would like to add that other forms of pressure on the inside and outside of the knee have always been allowed under IBJJF rules: De la Riva”and some berimbolo variations, half-guard (when the outside leg pulls our opponents leg out and applies pressure to the knee outwards) and, depending on angle, some fifty-fifty foot-locks and toe-holds. In the case of the De la Riva and the half-guard, the argument goes that although a reap, the opponent has an opening to turn away (by giving the back) and thus relieves the pressure on the knee, whereas a knee-reaping inverted heel-hook does not allow the same leeway. This is a strange argument, since the whole point of a submission is not to give your opponent any leeway in the first place.
I will add this, in my experience (and I suspect most would agree with me on this one, although statistics would still need to be presented), most injuries come from transitions, scrambles, and take-downs, not submissions. And if this is true, as I suspect it is, what follows is not that we should ban transitions and takedowns (jiu-jitsu needs more takedowns, not fewer) because they are “too dangerous,” but rethink what is indeed harmful to our health and well-being in relation to what is efficient for combat. That is to say, we need to keep jiu-jitsu a complete and effective form of combat, while still being a mass-sport.
The failure to assimilate the immense repertoire of techniques that leg-locks allow for, with a depth of knowledge and efficiency that we are only beginning to discover, will cripple future generations that might be learning a less equipped arsenal of submissions, where the lack of leg-locks are concerned. This could potentially split jiu-jitsu permanently. And while individuals and new organizations might benefit from this split, the community as a whole will lose. Another possible consequence is that in the future, IBJJF competitors might become the second echelon of submission experts, due to the more complete arsenal of submissions currently available in the sub-only competitions. This is not to say that the sub-only wave does not come with many problems and contradictions that make it a less efficient form of combat than IBJJF does (a topic I will approach in the second part of these articles).
Perhaps a reasonable solution for IBJJF in the near future is to allow all leg-locks for the higher belts in no-gi competitions (since many competitors in these divisions are either professionals or semi-professionals anyway) until we feel confident enough to allow them in other divisions as well. Keeping in mind, the overwhelming majority of competitors look at jiu-jitsu as a means to relax, exercise, learn self-defense while having a good time, and a break from the stress of real-life. These practitioners might be more concerned with the integrity of their knees than with keeping jiu-jitsu a more complete and efficient form of combat.
One could argue that by attempting to prioritize safety over efficiency, judo set itself apart from other grappling arts and made it appealing to a broader public. I think this unlikely. As I mentioned before, transitions are likely to be the prime-suspects of injuries in grappling. And I suspect the injury ratio in judo competitions is much higher than in jiu-jitsu, even when knee-reaps make themselves present. Additionally, by limiting the amount of submissions available in competition, judo distanced itself from its martial arts roots. The question we should be asking is, do we want to follow a similar path?
I will finish by reminding everyone of the importance of keeping jiu-jitsu cohesive, safe, and within reasonable rules, yet efficient and combat realistic. We must keep it one of the fastest growing martial arts in the world, and the one that helped give birth to one of the fastest growing sports in the world, and to allow it to continue to change the lives of so many people. But above all, we must remind ourselves that we didn’t begin our jiu-jitsu journey because it was safe; we always knew it wouldn’t be. Rather we began it because it was efficient and real.
Lets keep it that way."
"I began part one of these three articles making a case for an open discussion about all leg-attacks, their safety and how this safety overlaps with the concern we should all have to continue to evolve Jiu-Jitsu into a more effective form of combat. I also suggested that IBJJF should, perhaps, allow all leg-attacks for higher belts, since these competitors consist largely of professionals and semi-professionals and that there has not been, to my knowledge, any comprehensive study comparing the injury ratio of other joint-manipulations to those of leg-locks. Additionally, I mentioned that it was my personal belief, based solely on my experience on the mats, that transitions and “scrambles” were the main cause of injuries in sport Jiu-Jitsu, not joint-locks. The intention was to remind the grappling community not to lose track of our roots. That in a sport format, safety is paramount, but that effectiveness is the essence of our art.
Few people dispute that a point system, normally based around IBJJF standards and criteria, come with problems. In IBJJFs defense, finding a balance between the martial-art and the sport, is not a simple task, keeping in mind the enormous spectrum that lays in between these two desired ends. The problems aren’t few and are easy to spot: overly complicated ruleset; overly tactical matches; rules that change too often in an attempt to keep up with the technical evolution of practitioners; and, in my view, the worst of them all, a ruleset that make it possible for competitors to go from white to black-belt winning multiple tournaments, without every learning how to take-down and/or submit, making the fight for the “advantage” the ticket to a world-championship (I will approach these problems in more detail in the third and last part of these articles.)
I suspect that even if you ask competitors who are winning in this fashion, at least most of them, would agree that there certainly is a problem to be tackled here. Winning by an advantage shouldn’t make anyone overly proud and shouldn’t be the end goal of Jiu-Jitsu from a combative and martial-art perspective. However, one must admit, that from a sport perspective, how you score that win, ratter by submission or advantage, matters much less, since both wins will award you a ticket to the next round or to the title. Which explains the overly tactical battles for advantages and the fewer risks taken.
To blame the competitors is, in my view, a grave mistake. I have no shame in admitting that many times while competing, I held on to advantages while starring at the clock. Winning was simply too important to me and my respect for my opponents ability too great to allow myself any risk. After all, months of arduous preparation, emptying your bank-account, injuring yourself, sacrificing your personal-life, all add to the value and importance of that victory. For all these reasons, to blame the competitor, is not only unproductive, its fallacious. People when given a ruleset, any for that matter, will behave on the very fringe of what that ruleset allows for and invariably lean towards the most efficient strategies, a motion that could be described as “survival of the fittest techniques and strategies.” And I suspect this is not only true for Jiu-Jitsu, but for all competitive human endeavors that operate within a given framework on which the group of competitors agree upon. And here lies the “crux” of this article. Not everyone is content with the competitive framework we currently have available.
The debate is far from new. In fact it predates not only IBJJF, but the brazilian version of JiuJitsu itself. In the last article, I gave a brief glimpse on the inception of Judo and how it split from other schools by establishing a ruleset and making Kodokan the gravitational center of Kano’s students. The traditional Jiu-Jitsu schools, or “ryus”, as they were referred to, were a series of academies with particular styles and rules. They agreed to call it “Jiu-Jitsu” (or “Ju-Jutsu” and “Ju-Jitsu”, depending on your western translation of the kanjis.) Some focussed on throws, others, joint manipulates and others on “atemis” (strikes). The brilliance of Kano, the founder of Judo, was to formalize a set of techniques into a system he would later call Judo (Initially, he still referred to it as “Kano Jiu-Jitsu”). This centralization around Kodokan was an enormous contrast, and a rift, from the eclectic and de-centralized Jiu-Jitsu scene of the time. Kano, a shrewd and influential individual had the solution. By systematizing Judo and creating a set of strict rules, he would set his version of Jiu-Jitsu apart from these competing schools.
Destiny would have it, that a few of Kano’s graduate students from Japan who were spreading Jiu-Jitsu around the world, would land in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1914 (Correio Paulistano September-23-1914. Although possibly as early as July-17). After its spread in popularity in that country, the debate would continue, albeit, under a different auspice. This time, two brothers, that would play an important role in the dissemination of Jiu-Jitsu in Brazil, and later the world, were locked in a never ending debate with members of the brazilian-japanese community and other brazilians over: gis (A noite July-13-1931); the length of these gis (Diario de Noticias June-13-1936); time limit and number of rounds (A Batalha October-14-1932); and points versus no-points (Diario Carioca October-8-1936.) As you can see, different definitions of what Jiu-Jitsu is or ought to be, are from a different epoch.
The current disagreements have led to a build-up of resentment of a sector of the Jiu-Jitsu community (mainly in North-America but also around the globe) that has a different understanding from the main-stream grappling community and is not fond of a point system. Another point, and at the risk of sounding presumptuous, is that much of the criticism directed towards IBJJF and their rules, myself, and others, have been making for well over a decade. So to make matters clear, there’s nothing new regarding these critiques and in fact they have been brought to IBJJF’s attention many times with the difference that now, a wave of opposition, largely labelled “Submission-Only” has gathered enough momentum to warrant this discussion and attempt to branch away from main-stream competition.
Initially, I was more enthusiastic about the prospect of watching the development of a ruleset that was more prone to submissions and with no advantages. This excitement, however, was quickly replaced by skepticism, and later, the recognition that rather than solving the problem, “submission-only” tournaments have exacerbated it by drifting further away from the combat aspect of Jiu-Jitsu and closer to the sport end of the spectrum. The “sub-only” advocates, often take the argumentative route that “Jiu-Jitsu is all about the submission.” Within this limited and narrow definition of Jiu-Jitsu, lies the biggest problem with these “submission-only” tournaments: their neglect of position and control in a combat situation.
It should go without saying that submissions are indeed at the core of Jiu-Jitsu, regardless of your definition of it. However, it is a simplistic view of Jiu-Jitsu to narrow it down to only that and ignore the importance of top position, for example, in a less sport oriented arena. Those who disagree, need only to watch the next UFC.
Take the recent match between Keenan Cornelius and Gordon Ryan, a “submission-only” with no time limit match. It turned out to be a ninety minute long slow paced event, where for both competitors sat on the mats for a considerable portion of the match waiting for the opponents mistake. For those readers who have watched that match, ask yourself in all honesty: In what way does that match resemble a real fight? I would like to add that I hope this does not come across as an attack on either competitor. Their skills are out of question, and a tactical match between them is to be expected, however, it is the ruleset that needs questioning here. And as I explained above, people will naturally gravitate towards the very edge of what the rules allow for in order to be tactically effective. From this perspective, Keenan’s and Gordon’s behavior during that match make perfect sense.
Or take ADCC for example, a hybrid ruleset where the first 5 minutes follows a “sub-only” format, followed by another five minutes with a point system that resembles IBJJF. A common practice by competitors is to do close to nothing the first five minutes and “pick-up” the pace the following five when points are present. The change in behavior is easy to notice even for the untrained eye. As soon as the five minute bell rings, the action begins. One can only point out to exceptions, but sports and martial-arts aren’t made of exceptions, we need to focus on the overall pattern of competitive behavior.
We can always argue that positioning is used in these “point-free” tournaments and that they are necessary to set-up submissions in the first place. To which I would say: watch these events closer. I have often made the case against many of my training partners that submission doesn’t necessarily follow positioning, but often precedes it. I have in many situations “given-up” on passing a guard in order to attack a submission, creating a response that would facilitate the pass. Pursuing the opposite route, can create progress just the same, as any experienced grappler can attest to. Positions and submissions are interchangeable in the sense that they are both at the heart of Jiu-Jitsu as a martial-art and efficient form of combat. So what exactly is the problem with “sub-only?”
My first piece of critique, and most important one in fact, lies with the lack of take-downs in these tournaments. They are not illegal, but why don’t we see more of them? My answer, as to why they are missing, lies a few lines above when I explained that competitors will, naturally, gravitate towards the most efficient strategies framed by the rules. In the case of “sub-only”, the infamous behavior of “butt-scooting”. An already existing problem under IBJJf but taken to new heights in tournaments with no points by removing all incentives for being on top and controlling that position while moving to a submission. A recent study by a popular grappling website shows an astonishing zero percent takedown ratio for EBI, although to be fair, in the same article, the submission ratio was higher than the average point-system tournament (www.bjjheroes.com). Their promoter, in one of these events, went to the extreme of asking competitors, during rules meeting, “not to wrestle but to pull-guard.” Which, I will mention in passing, is completely at odds with a definition of Jiu-Jitsu that is MMA oriented or that bears any resemblance with a combat situation.
Why bother taking someone down? It is an enormous effort (energy) and risk (a guillotine for example). Much easier, and efficient under these rules, to specialize in sitting to the ground and attacking the feet, where you don’t have to fight for passing the guard or sweeping. And by doing so, neutralizing wrestling, completely and permanently while making top position irrelevant since no one is throwing punches and elbows, further drifting away from our roots, unfortunately.
Take another problem, directly related to the one above. Under a no-point-system, why bother preventing someone from passing your guard or mounting? If it gets too hard, let them pass, take your time and recover when your opponent decides to attack, creating space for the defense and recovery of your guard where you can go back to leg-attacking. For the leg-lock expert, giving mount away can be an advantage (no elbow-strikes remember?) since there are no points and a good chance at escaping while attacking your opponents feet in the process. Keeping in mind that we are talking exclusively about a no-gi point system where submitting from mount and side-control are technically harder, the gi might change that in some respects. And additionally, why bother sweeping? It is an enormous risk (exposing yourself to a submission for example) and likely to be a waste of energy since there are no rewards for being on top.
I have often observed that the rear-naked choke is likely to be the most common submission in both MMA and submission-wrestling. This says something about the back-attack, its significance and, above all, its efficiency. So why is it that the most common finishing move in “sub-only”, when there are no draws and submissions prevail, is a leg-attack and not the rear naked choke? I believe there are two likely answers: a) the unfamiliarity with “knee-reaping” by competitors accustomed to a point-system that bans these attacks (discussed in part one of these articles) and most importantly; b) theres no point on going to your knees on all fours to prevent the pass or to try to stand back up (like most MMA fighters do) after a sweep or take-down. The two most common ways of getting to that prime finishing position. Concluding that given the risks of going to your knees or standing back up, it makes sense that one would lay flat on his or hers back and wait to recover guard. Which is exactly what you can observe when there are no points to be avoided.
In a recent statistical study of IBJJF’s Gi World Championship (or “Mundial”) published on the same website mentioned above, they found that the submission ratio at the black-belt level was 41%, 42% and 32% for the years of 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively (www.bjjheroes.com), for an average of 38,33 submissions per fight. These numbers aren’t low and are in direct defiance of anyone who believes there are no submissions under a point-system (although certainly not enough in my opinion). It is also necessary to keep in mind the enormous amount of draws in tournaments without a point system (for obvious reasons, I am discounting overtimes where you start in a submission or near one, which renders the submission less relevant since you didn’t get there on your own, but because the time ran out.)
Another important point worth mentioning here, is that slower more tactical matches at IBJJF tournaments are often the result of two evenly skilled world-class competitors (at least in the study above where the submission ratio of 38,33 per match was reached at the black belt level at the IBJJF World Championships), resulting in a close score and a more tactical approach that doesn’t allow for mistakes. The same can’t always be said about “sub-only” events, where there is often a greater disparity between competitors in these tournaments and super-fights, which can help explain the high number of submissions.
When having this discussion with friends and students, I often make this analogy: Think of yourself as an investor with two options; first, to invest much of your resources into a “winner-take-all” type investment, where if you win, you take the grand prize (think of a submission here), whereas if you lose, you take nothing and lose all your investment (your effort and risk involved in attempting a submission). Now your second option, is of a very different nature, here, if you win, you win the big prize, whereas if you lose, you take back a certain percentage of your initial investment (a point). It is obvious which one any of us would choose. Points, don’t remove the incentive to take risk, they, increase it. The problem with IBJJF has nothing to do with their criteria or with a point-system, but with their reward system that favors position over submission. The “sub-only” wave is an attempt at correcting this, their mistake being, that they swung so far and wide the other way, that they missed the mark to a reasonable solution and created an even bigger problem: an even less efficient form of fighting than IBJJF has created.
These same friends and students often point out that these matches with no-points, are more exciting, and have less stalling than tournaments with points. As far as the excitement goes, “beauty is in the eye of the beholder” and it should be up to every individual to decide what is aesthetically pleasing and what is not. I will say this though, I didn’t begin training Jiu-Jitsu because it was aesthetically pleasing. Martial-arts with strikes have captivated the lay audience for decades and pro-wrestling is one of the most profitable athletic enterprises in the U.S. To me, Jiu-Jitsu’s beauty doesn’t lie in its excitement, but in its efficiency and realism. As far as the stalling goes, I remember cornering during an EBI and watching a specific match where one of the competitors held the other in “rubber-guard” and did absolutely nothing for 6:36 seconds. The referee didn’t say a word. Keeping in mind, IBJJF has systems in place, although often poorly used by the referees, to punish competitors every 20 seconds for stalling. This competitor in particular, would have been disqualified, had he not moved after warning, 1:20 seconds into his “rubber-guard”. Those who believe there is a lack of stalling in “sub-only” tournaments, carry the difficult task of explaining the example above.
With all its flaws, by favoring control, scoring a take-down and a sweep, IBJJF has, to some degree, created, by rewarding, a realistic sequence that resembles a real-fight: take-down, followed by guard-pass, followed by mount, followed by back-take, followed by rear-naked-choke. And even though IBJJF matches, don’t always go this way, by scoring and rewarding top control and position, they have created a system that approximates to the realities of a fight far more than a tournament where position is never rewarded.
As I hope I made clear in the first part of this article, there has been an important benefit brought forward by “sub-only” events: leg-locks. In all fairness, they were always present, many point oriented system have always allowed the “knee-reap”. But what this set of rules has done is remind us of the importance of attacking the lower-body and how blind so many of us could be for so long (myself included) to such an important family of submissions. I hope this changes and that we can make a crucial separation in between allowing important and efficient families of submissions and keeping a ruleset that maintains Jiu-Jitsu status as a martial-art, and not make the direct, and unjustified, association between “knee-reaping” and a no-point system.
A final topic I would like to touch on is a broader brush on what it is we want Jiu-Jitsu to be like in the future. I have often argued that Jiu-Jitsu needs more take-downs and less “double-guard pull”. People are, and should be, free to differ. Nevertheless, it is of paramount importance to rethink what type of martial-art, or sport, we will be teaching in the future to our students. The implications of ridding ourselves of positions like “mount” and of all take-downs, will have potentially irreversible repercussions to the “gentle-art” and we might be rearing a generation of grapplers that are utterly inept to defend themselves in a real situation or to ever represent Jiu-Jitsu in MMA. One can always point out to exceptions of the problems I’ve mentioned above, but competitive martial-arts aren’t represented by single individuals and exceptions, but of the total average of all practitioners, who will invariably lean towards the most effective winning strategies. We ca always have a conceptual discussion of what “ought to be”, or we can have a realistic discussion about “what is”. Those who pay close attention to no-point events, will quickly notice how little resemblance they bear to any real situation you have ever been in or seen (even less so than IBJJF), or the UFC for that matter. Certainly something worth the thought and discussion."
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